Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP)
Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) is a popular psychotherapeutic approach which is also often utilized to bring organizational changes. The approach based on "a model of interpersonal communication chiefly concerned with the relationship between successful patterns of behaviour and the subjective experiences (esp. patterns of thought) underlying them" and "a system of alternative therapy based on this which seeks to educate people in self-awareness and effective communication, and to change their patterns of mental and emotional behaviour".
The co-founders, Richard Bandler and linguist John Grinder, claimed that NLP would be instrumental in "finding ways to help people have better, fuller and richer lives". They coined the term "Neuro-Linguistic Programming" to denote their belief in a connection between neurological processes ("neuro"), language ("linguistic") and behavioral patterns that have been learned through experience ("programming") and can be organized to achieve specific goals in life.
Neuro-linguistic programming was originally promoted by its co-founders in the 1970s as an effective and rapid form of psychological therapy, capable of addressing the full range of problems that psychologists are likely to encounter, such as phobias, depression, habit disorder, psychosomatic illnesses, and learning disorders. It also espoused the potential for self-determination through overcoming learned limitations and emphasized well-being and healthy functioning. Later, it was promoted as a "science of excellence", derived from the study or "modeling" of how successful or outstanding people in different fields obtain their results. It was claimed that these skills can be learned by anyone to improve one's effectiveness both personally and professionally.
Despite its popularity, NLP has been largely ignored by conventional social science because of issues of professional credibility and insufficient empirical evidence to substantiate its models and claimed effectiveness. It appears to have little impact on academic psychology and limited effect on mainstream psychotherapy and counselling. However, it has had some influence among private psychotherapists, including hypnotherapists, to the extent that some claim to be trained in NLP and apply it to their practice. NLP has had a greater influence in management training, life coaching, and the self-help industry.